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The kernel is the core of the FreeBSD operating system. It is responsible for managing memory, enforcing security controls, networking, disk access, and much more. While much of FreeBSD is dynamically configurable, it is still occasionally necessary to configure and compile a custom kernel. All of the commands listed in the examples in this chapter should be executed as root. Traditionally, FreeBSD used a monolithic kernel. Today, most of the functionality in the FreeBSD kernel is contained in modules which can be dynamically loaded and unloaded from the kernel as necessary.

This allows the running kernel to adapt immediately to new hardware and for new functionality to be brought into the kernel. This is known as a modular kernel. Occasionally, it is still necessary to perform static kernel configuration.

Sometimes the needed functionality is so tied to the kernel that it can not be made dynamically loadable. Some security environments prevent the loading and unloading of kernel modules and require that only needed functionality is statically compiled into the kernel.

Building a custom kernel is often a rite of passage for advanced BSD users. This process, while time consuming, can provide benefits to the FreeBSD system. This has a number of benefits, such as:. Faster boot time. Since the kernel will only probe the hardware on the system, the time it takes the system to boot can decrease.

Lower memory usage. This is important because the kernel code remains resident in physical memory at all times, preventing that memory from being used by applications. For this reason, a custom kernel is useful on a system with a small amount of RAM. Additional hardware support. Before building a custom kernel, consider the reason for doing so. If there is a need for specific hardware support, it may already exist as a module.

Most kernel drivers have a loadable module and manual page. For example, the ath 4 wireless Ethernet driver has the following information in its manual page:. This is mostly true for certain subsystems. On a dual-boot system, the inventory can be created from the other operating system. If FreeBSD is the only installed operating system, use dmesg 8 to determine the hardware that was found and listed during the boot probe.

Most device drivers on FreeBSD have a manual page which lists the hardware supported by that driver. For example, the following lines indicate that the psm 4 driver found a mouse:. Since this hardware exists, this driver should not be removed from a custom kernel configuration file.

Another tool for finding hardware is pciconf 8 , which provides more verbose output. For example:. This output shows that the ath driver located a wireless Ethernet device. The -k flag of man 1 can be used to provide useful information. For example, it can be used to display a list of manual pages which contain a particular device brand or name:.

Once the hardware inventory list is created, refer to it to ensure that drivers for installed hardware are not removed as the custom kernel configuration is edited. In order to create a custom kernel configuration file and build a custom kernel, the full FreeBSD source tree must first be installed. This directory contains a number of subdirectories, including those which represent the following supported architectures: amd64 , i , powerpc , and sparc Instead, copy the file to a different name and make edits to the copy.

The convention is to use a name with all capital letters. The default editor is vi, though an easier editor for beginners, called ee, is also installed with FreeBSD. The format of the kernel configuration file is simple. Each line contains a keyword that represents a device or subsystem, an argument, and a brief description. Any text after a is considered a comment and ignored. To remove kernel support for a device or subsystem, put a at the beginning of the line representing that device or subsystem.

Do not add or remove a for any line that you do not understand. It is easy to remove support for a device or option and end up with a broken kernel. For example, if the ata 4 driver is removed from the kernel configuration file, a system using ATA disk drivers may not boot. When in doubt, just leave support in the kernel.

Alternately, keep the kernel configuration file elsewhere and create a symbolic link to the file:. An include directive is available for use in configuration files. This allows another configuration file to be included in the current one, making it easy to maintain small changes relative to an existing file. If only a small number of additional options or drivers are required, this allows a delta to be maintained with respect to GENERIC , as seen in this example:.

As upgrades are performed, new features added to GENERIC will also be added to the local kernel unless they are specifically prevented using nooptions or nodevice. A comprehensive list of configuration directives and their descriptions may be found in config 5. To build a file which contains all available options, run the following command as root :.

Once the edits to the custom configuration file have been saved, the source code for the kernel can be compiled using the following steps:. Install the new kernel associated with the specified kernel configuration file.

Shutdown the system and reboot into the new kernel. If something goes wrong, refer to The kernel does not boot. By default, when a custom kernel is compiled, all kernel modules are rebuilt. For example, this variable specifies the list of modules to build instead of using the default of building all modules:. Additional variables are available. Refer to make. If config fails, it will print the line number that is incorrect. If make fails, it is usually due to an error in the kernel configuration file which is not severe enough for config to catch.

Review the configuration, and if the problem is not apparent, send an email to the FreeBSD general questions mailing list which contains the kernel configuration file. If the new kernel does not boot or fails to recognize devices, do not panic! Fortunately, FreeBSD has an excellent mechanism for recovering from incompatible kernels.

Simply choose the kernel to boot from at the FreeBSD boot loader. This can be accessed when the system boot menu appears by selecting the “Escape to a loader prompt” option. At the prompt, type boot kernel. After booting with a good kernel, check over the configuration file and try to build it again.

Also, dmesg 8 will print the kernel messages from the current boot. When troubleshooting a kernel, make sure to keep a copy of GENERIC , or some other kernel that is known to work, as a different name that will not get erased on the next build.

This is important because every time a new kernel is installed, kernel. As soon as possible, move the working kernel by renaming the directory containing the good kernel:. To fix this, recompile and install a world built with the same version of the source tree as the kernel. It is never a good idea to use a different version of the kernel than the rest of the operating system.

Last modified on : December 27, by Li-Wen Hsu. Book menu. Table of Contents 8. Synopsis 8. Why Build a Custom Kernel? Finding the System Hardware 8. The Configuration File 8. Building and Installing a Custom Kernel 8. If Something Goes Wrong. When to build a custom kernel. How to take a hardware inventory. How to customize a kernel configuration file.

How to use the kernel configuration file to create and build a new kernel. How to install the new kernel. How to troubleshoot if things go wrong. Alternatively, to load the driver as a module at boot time, place the following line in loader. The Configuration File In order to create a custom kernel configuration file and build a custom kernel, the full FreeBSD source tree must first be installed.

Building and Installing a Custom Kernel Once the edits to the custom configuration file have been saved, the source code for the kernel can be compiled using the following steps:. Procedure: Building a Kernel. Change to this directory:.



Parallels desktop 5 serial key free


The manual provides information on how to install Oracle VM VirtualBox and use it to create and configure virtual machines. It is assumed that readers are familiar with Web technologies and have a general understanding of Windows and UNIX platforms. Oracle customers that have purchased support have access to electronic support through My Oracle Support.

Oracle is fully committed to diversity and inclusion. Oracle recognizes the influence of ethnic and cultural values and is working to remove language from our products and documentation that might be considered insensitive.

While doing so, we are also mindful of the necessity to maintain compatibility with our customers’ existing technologies and the need to ensure continuity of service as Oracle’s offerings adobe creative suite collection upgrade from free industry standards evolve.

Because of these technical constraints, our effort to remove insensitive terms is an ongoing, long-term process. Oracle VM VirtualBox is a cross-platform virtualization application. What does that mean? Secondly, it extends the capabilities of your existing computer so that it can run multiple OSes, inside multiple virtual machines, at the same time. As an example, you can run Windows and Linux on your Mac, run Windows Server on your Linux server, run Linux on your Windows PC, and so on, all alongside your existing applications.

You can install and run as many virtual machines as you like. The only practical limits are disk space and memory. Oracle VM VirtualBox is deceptively simple yet also very powerful. It can run everywhere from small embedded systems or desktop class machines all the way up to datacenter deployments and even Cloud environments. Figure 1. In this User Manual, we will begin simply with a quick introduction to virtualization and how to get your first virtual machine running with the easy-to-use Oracle VM VirtualBox graphical user interface.

Subsequent chapters will go into much more detail covering more powerful tools and features, but fortunately, it is not страница to read the entire User /37653.txt before you can use Oracle VM VirtualBox.

The techniques and features that Oracle VM VirtualBox provides are useful in the following scenarios:. Running multiple operating systems simultaneously. This way, you can run software written parallels desktop 5 serial key free one OS on another, such as Windows software on Linux or a Mac, without having to reboot to use it.

Easier software installations. Software vendors can use virtual machines to ship entire software parallels desktop 5 serial key free. For example, installing a complete mail server solution on a real machine can be a tedious task.

With Oracle VM VirtualBox, such a complex setup, often called an appliancecan be packed into a virtual machine. Installing and running a mail server becomes as easy as parallels desktop 5 serial key free such an appliance into Oracle VM VirtualBox.

Testing and disaster recovery. Once installed, a virtual machine and its virtual hard disks can be considered a container that can be arbitrarily frozen, parallels desktop 5 serial key free up, copied, backed up, and transported between hosts.

On top of that, with the use of another Oracle VM VirtualBox feature called по ссылкеone can save a particular state of a virtual machine parallels desktop 5 serial key free revert back to that state, if necessary.

This way, one can freely experiment with a computing environment. If something goes wrong, such as problems after installing software or infecting the guest with a virus, you can easily switch back to a previous snapshot and avoid the need of frequent backups and restores. Any number of snapshots can be created, allowing you to travel back and forward in virtual machine time. You can delete snapshots while a VM is running to reclaim disk space. Infrastructure consolidation.

Virtualization can significantly reduce parallels desktop 5 serial key free and electricity costs. Most of the time, computers today only use a fraction of their potential power and run with low average system loads. A lot of hardware resources as well as electricity is thereby wasted. So, instead of running many such physical computers that are only partially used, one can pack microsoft office 2016 free full version download virtual machines onto a few powerful hosts and balance the loads between them.

When dealing with virtualization, and also for understanding the following chapters of this documentation, it helps to acquaint oneself with a bit of crucial terminology, especially the following terms:. Host operating system host OS.

See Section 1. There may be platform-specific differences which we will point out where appropriate. Guest operating system guest OS. This is the OS that is running inside the virtual machine. But to achieve near-native performance of the guest code on your machine, we had to go through a lot of optimizations that are specific to certain OSes.

So while your favorite OS may run as a guest, we officially support and optimize for a select few, which include the most common OSes. See Section 3. Virtual machine VM. In other words, you run your guest OS in a VM. Normally, a VM is shown as a window on your computer’s desktop. Depending on which of the parallels desktop 5 serial key free frontends of Oracle VM VirtualBox you use, the VM might be shown in full screen mode or remotely on another computer.

Some parameters describe hardware settings, such as the amount of memory and number of CPUs assigned. Other parameters describe the state information, such as whether the VM is running or saved. See Chapter 8, VBoxManage. Guest Additions. This refers to special software packages which are shipped with Oracle VM VirtualBox but designed to be installed inside a VM to improve performance of the guest OS and to add extra features.

See Chapter 4, Guest Additions. Oracle VM VirtualBox runs on a large number of bit host operating systems. Oracle VM VirtualBox is parallels desktop 5 serial key free so-called hosted hypervisor, sometimes referred to as a type parallels desktop 5 serial key free hypervisor. Whereas a bare-metal or type 1 hypervisor would run directly on the hardware, Oracle VM VirtualBox requires an existing OS to be installed. It adobe premiere pro cs4 cd key free очень! thus run alongside existing applications on that host.

To a very large degree, Oracle VM VirtualBox is functionally identical on all of the host platforms, and the same file and image formats are used. Parallels desktop 5 serial key free enables you to run virtual machines created on one host on another host parallels desktop 5 serial key free a different host Адрес страницы. For example, you can create a virtual machine on Windows and then run it under Linux.

In addition, virtual machines can easily be imported and exported using the Parallels desktop 5 serial key free Virtualization Format OVFan industry standard created for this purpose.

You can even import OVFs that were created with a different virtualization software. For users of Oracle Cloud Infrastructure the functionality parallels desktop 5 serial key free to exporting and importing virtual machines to and from the cloud. This simplifies development of applications and deployment to the production environment.

Guest Additions: shared folders, seamless windows, 3D virtualization. The Oracle VM VirtualBox Guest Additions are software packages which can be installed inside of supported guest systems to improve their performance and to provide additional integration and communication with the host system.

After installing the Guest Additions, a virtual machine will support automatic adjustment of video resolutions, seamless windows, accelerated 3D graphics and more. In particular, Guest Additions provide for shared folderswhich let you access files on the host system from within a guest machine. See Section 4. Great hardware parallels desktop 5 serial key free.

Guest multiprocessing SMP. USB device support. Oracle VM VirtualBox implements a virtual USB controller and enables you to connect arbitrary USB devices to your virtual machines without having to install device-specific drivers on the host.

USB support is not limited to certain device categories. Hardware compatibility. Oracle VM VirtualBox virtualizes a vast array of virtual devices, among them many devices that are typically provided by other virtualization platforms. This enables easy cloning of disk images from real machines and importing of third-party virtual machines into Oracle VM VirtualBox.

Full ACPI support. This enables easy cloning of disk images from real machines or third-party virtual machines into Oracle VM VirtualBox. For mobile systems running on battery, the guest can thus enable energy saving and notify the user of the remaining power, for example in full screen modes. Multiscreen resolutions. Oracle VM VirtualBox virtual machines support screen resolutions many times that of a physical screen, allowing them to be spread over a large number of screens attached to the host system.

Built-in iSCSI support. This unique feature enables you to connect a virtual machine directly to an iSCSI storage server without going through the host system. The VM accesses the iSCSI ссылка на страницу directly without the extra overhead that is required for virtualizing hard disks in container files.

See Section 5. PXE Network boot. Multigeneration branched snapshots. Oracle VM VirtualBox can save arbitrary snapshots of the state of the virtual machine.

You can go back in time and revert the virtual machine to any such snapshot and start an alternative VM configuration from there, effectively creating a whole snapshot tree. You can create and delete snapshots while the virtual machine is running. VM groups. Oracle VM VirtualBox provides a groups feature that enables the user to organize and control virtual machines collectively, as well as individually. In addition to basic groups, it is also possible for any VM to be in more than one group, and for groups to be nested in a hierarchy.

This means you can have groups of groups.



Boxer TTL S.C. (en adelante Boxer) con domicilio ubicado en: calle Manuel E. Izaguirre 19, departamento 502, piso 5, Col. Ciudad Satelite Municipio Nucalpan de Juarez, C.P. 53100, Estado de México, en términos de la Ley Federal de Protección de Datos Personales en Posesión de los Particulares (LFPDPPP) del Reglamento de la Ley Federal de Protección de Datos Personales en Posesión de los Particulares (Reglamento), y de los propios Lineamientos del Aviso de privacidad (Lineamientos), este acto notifica a los titulares de los datos personales que posee, la forma y los términos en los que sus datos serán tratados.

El tratamiento de datos personales del titular, tales como: nombre, correo electrónico, teléfono, código postal, género y edad que obren en poder de Boxer, tendrán como finalidades necesarias: la validación de recepción de promociones de Boxer.

Como finalidades secundarias del tratamiento de datos se encuentran:

  1. La promoción, publicidad, contratación y colocación de todo tipo de productos y/o servicios, asi como la prueba de los mismos, tanto de Boxer como de sus Clientes.
  2. Estadísticas, desarrollo de todo tipo de productos y/o servicios, incluyendo pruebas de los mismos de Boxer, de conformidad con el objeto social y lo establecido en la ley, autorizando desde éste momento su transferencia a otras empresas.

Boxer de ninguna forma comercializará con sus datos personales en actividades distintas a las señaladas en las finalidades del presente Aviso de Privacidad.


Los datos personales en poder de Boxer son recabados de manera licita e informada y podrán ser transferidos a cualquier tercero con los que Boxer tenga o llegare a tener una relación jurídica, en caso de que así lo estime necesario, para ello se hará del conocimiento del tercero que los trate, las finalidades con las que fueron obtenidos y por lo tanto con las que los podrá usar y/o tratar, procurando su confidencialidad, seguridad física y el establecimiento de procedimientos a seguir en caso de vulneraciones. Aquellos datos personales que obtenga Boxer a través de sus Clientes (Usuarios), de terceros o de fuentes de acceso público, serán tratados con la misma finalidad con la que fueron recabados por el responsable original y con alguna de las finalidades descritas en el presente aviso de privacidad.

Boxer responde a cualquier autoridad de manera enunciativa mas no limitativa: financiera, judicial, fiscal, penal, administrativa, por lo cual, en caso de requerimientos de dichas autoridades podrá transferir los datos personales.

Para realizar este tipo de transferencias de datos no se requiere de su consentimiento por estar permitidas en términos de la LFPDPPP.


Boxer mantendrá en su poder los datos personales a los que se refiere el presente Aviso de Privacidad, hasta por un periodo de al menos 10 (diez) años, o durante el tiempo que la relación jurídica entre el Titular de los Datos y Boxer, ya sea directa o indirecta permaneza vigente.


Los datos personales tratados por Boxer tendrán un tratamiento confidencial y limitado a la finalidad con la que son recabados, procurando en todo momento su seguridad física, controles de acceso, idoneidad y mantenimiento constante en las instalaciones, repositorios, medios físicos, ópticos o cualquier otro medio en los que sean almacenados.

Cualquier vulneración a los datos personales sujetos a la LFPDPPP o a los repositorios físicos o electrónicos en donde éstos sean almacenados por Boxer, serán notificados en su página de Internet, a través de medios masivos de comunicación y/o directo al titular de los Datos.


Los titulares de los Datos, como titulares, tienen derecho a (i) acceder a sus datos personales en posesión de Boxer y conocer los detalles del tratamiento de los mismos, (ii) rectificarlos en caso de estar desactualizados, ser inexactos o estar incompletos, (iii) cancelarlos cuando considere que no están siendo utilizados conforme a los principios, deberes y obligaciones aplicables, u (iv) oponerse al tratamiento de los mismo para fines específicos. Estos derechos se conocen como los Derechos ARCO.

Para el ejercicio de sus Derechos ARCO por favor envíe la solicitud al correo electrónico La solicitud deberá contener la siguiente información y documentación:

Nombre y copia de identificación oficial vigente del titular y/o su representante legal. En el caso del representante legal se deberá acompañar del documento con el que se acredite su personalidad. Los documentos deberán ser escaneados y adjuntados al correo electrónico para verificar su veracidad.

La descripción clara y precisa de los datos personales respecto de los cuales se busca ejercer los Derechos ARCO, así como el derecho o derechos que se desea ejercer, lo cual podrá hacerse en el texto del correo electrónico o en un documento adjunto escaneado. Dicho documento deberá estar debidamente firmado al final del mismo y rubricado al calce de cada una de las hojas.

Señalar expresamente el deseo de recibir la contestación de Boxer a su petición a través del correo electrónico que usted nos proporcione.

Cualquier otro elemento o documento digitalizado que facilite la localización de los datos personales.

En el caso de solicitudes de rectificación de datos personales, el titular de los datos deberá indicar, además de lo señalado anteriormente, las modificaciones a realizarse y aportar la documentación que sustente su petición.

Tratándose de solicitudes de acceso a datos personales, procederá la entrega previa acreditación de la identidad del solicitante o representante legal, según corresponda.

Boxer emitirá la respectiva contestación y se tramitará la solicitud en los plazos establecidos por la LFPDPPP. En los casos de solicitudes de cancelación u oposición de datos personales, Boxer de procederá al bloqueo y supresión de los datos, no obstante los conservará exclusivamente para efectos de las responsabilidades nacidas del nuevo tratamiento.


Boxer se reserva el derecho de efectuar modificaciones o actualizaciones a los términos y condiciones del presente Aviso, para la atención de cambios legislativos, políticas internas, nuevos requerimientos para la prestación u ofrecimiento de servicios y prácticas del mercado.

Dichas modificaciones estarán disponibles para los titulares de los datos a través de su página de Internet. En el Aviso se incluirá la fecha de la última actualización del mismo.


Al proporcionar sus datos personales, usted otorga su consentimiento para que éstos sean tratados en los términos de este Aviso y con estricto apego al mismo, a la LFPDPPP, su Reglamento y a las disposiciones aplicables.

La fecha de la última actualización al presente aviso de privacidad: 19 de mayo de 2021.